Who should see an Endocrine Surgeon?


  • You had a thyroid biopsy that shows abnormal cells or cancer cells
  • If you have an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) with pressure symptoms in the neck. Pressure symptoms include difficulty breathing, especially when lying flat or raising your arms, sticking sensation when swallowing food or pills, or an annoying tickling cough
  • If you have a thyroid lump you can see or feel, or one seen on imaging that is larger than 1cm diameter
  • If your thyroid is growing or if you are worried
  • If your thyroid is overactive and you have chosen surgery as a treatment after discussing options with your GP or endocrinologist

If your thyroid is normal in size and function is normal or underactive, or if your nodules are all <10-15 mm without suspicious imaging features, you probably don’t need an endocrine surgeon. A GP or endocrinologist is best.


If you have high blood calcium and high parathyroid hormone (PTH) you should discuss your condition with a surgeon. This is true even if your imaging tests do not show an enlarged parathyroid gland. It might be a false negative. Hyperparathyroidism is a fully curable condition. There are long term health benefits to being cured that even many doctors don't fully realise.


  • If you have a mass on your adrenal that is >4cm or is overproducing hormones
  • If you have been diagnosed with any of the following conditions:
    • Pheochromocytoma
    • Adrenal-dependent Cushing's syndrome
    • Pituitary Cushing's with failed pituitary surgery
    • Primary Hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome)

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

If you have a family history of MEN syndromes, you should be mananged by a team of endocrinologist and an endocrine surgeon, with other specialties as well.